PIPERNO, ARRIGO : Chief of the School Dental Service in the Primary Schools, Rome, Italy (Jan. 3, 1939).


Caries is intimately associated with dietary conditions that favor over­cooking and over-sweetening.

Rich people in Rome, eating mostly cooked food and sugar : average caries, 80 percent. Poor people in Rome, eating mixed food (cooked and crude)—houses poorly exposed to the sun : average caries, 50-60 percent. Poor people in the Roman Campaigne, eating mostly uncooked food and hard bread—open-air life : average caries 20-30 percent; in villages having drinking water rich in fluorine —mottled enamel : average caries, 5-10 percent. Aged people in Rome, suffering from pyorrhea : nearly free from caries—excepting some decalcifications on discolored surfaces of roots.

Reference: None submitted.

PRICE, WESTON A.: Dental Research Laboratories, Cleveland, Ohio (Aug. 19, 1938).

From studies of fourteen primitive racial stocks 5in various stages of modernization, in different parts of the world, the author concludes that the most constant factor in control of caries is diet (nutrition). Native dietaries that were associated with immunity to caries represented widely different food combinations, being limited to those that were obtainable in the several en­vironments—ranging from the Arctic to equatorial jungles and from sea level to highAndes. All were rich in minerals, particularly phosphorus, and in fat-soluble vitamins. The efficient dietaries of isolated primitive races were carefully planned, in each, in accordance with the accumulated wisdom of the tribe. The displacing foods for all groups were refined products of corn-

The “fourteen primitive racial stocks” to which the author alludes are these : Africans, Alaskan Eskimos, Amazon (Jungle) Indians, Andes (High) Indians, Australian Aborigines,Melanesians,New ZealandMaori, North American Indians, Peruvians (ancient ; also isolated Indians),Polynesians,ScotlandGaelics, Swiss, Torres Strait Islanders.merce, chiefly white flour, sugar, polished rice, and canned goods. Caries immunity of primitives prevailed in spite of the absence of oral prophylaxis.

Caries has been controlled in theUnited Statesby clinical application, in feed­ing tests, of principles disclosed in the studies of primitive races—by reinforcing foods of modern susceptibles to make the diets chemically equivalent, in minerals and vitamins, to the foods used by immune primitives. A systemic controlling factor for caries is indicated by chemical changes in saliva—produced by reinforce­ment of the nutrition—that are associated with both control of active caries and change in tooth structure. The ratio of body building and repairing factors, to calories or heat and energy factors, is higher in caries-controlling than in caries- producing diets. Lowered individual capacity to utilize foods, to provide caries- immunity factors, is related to prenatal-deficiency disturbances due to depressed reproductive capacity of one or both parents.

References: J. Am. Den. Assoc., 1926, 1932, 1933, 1936, 1939; Industr. Engin. Chem., 1926; Am. J. Dis. Child., 1927; Den. Cosmos, 1932, 1934, 1935, 1936; Proc. Int. Den. Cong., 1931; J. Den. Res., 1932, 1933; Den. Digest, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936; Ohio State Med. J., 1937; Den. Items Int., 1938; N. Zeal. Den. J., 1938; Nutrition and physical degeneration, 1939 (Harper and Brothers,New York).

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