LEONARD, LAWRENCE P.: St. Cloud, Minn. (Apr. 25, 1939).

Caries usually results from combinations of these factors : (a) frequent in­gestion of readily fermentable carbohydrates, which, (b) recurrently lodging upon or adhering at definite locations on teeth, there, (c) under the action of microorganisms, (d) yield acids, in sufficient amount and concentration, (e) to decalcify and disintegrate enamel at these places, and (f) admit bacteria to underlying dentin, (g) for continuation of the destructive process.

Different carbohydrates have specific influences on the shape, color and charac­ter of caries. Thus, readily fermentable materials, such as high-grade candy, seem to cause white caries to develop so rapidly that there is no time for pigmentation; they induce small enamel orifices but extensive caries in underlying dentin. Jelly produces larger, elliptical, enamel orifices, the carious process is slower, and the lesion brownish. Licorice preparations induce dark (to black) carious lesions. Habits of parents, as to character of meals, quality of family life, etc., seem to exert a greater influence over children than heredity—” What monkey sees, monkey does.”

Reference: Proc. Minn. State Den. Soc., p. 84, 1931.

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